[书]PERFORM-3D原理与实例 – 第8章 – 粘滞阻尼器

结构耗能减震是指在主体结构中安装耗能组件,通过耗能组件的非线性滞回耗能,吸收地震输入结构中的能量,从而减轻主体结构的地震反应和损伤。此类耗能组件一般统称为阻尼器。根据阻尼器与位移和速率的相关性,可将阻尼器分为位移相关型阻尼器(如软钢阻尼器、摩擦阻尼器等)、速率相关型阻尼器(如粘滞阻尼器)、位移-速率相关型阻尼器(如粘弹性阻尼器)[1]。本章主要讨论粘滞阻尼器,首先对粘滞阻尼器的基本概念做简要介绍,在此基础上介绍PERFORM-3D[2,3]中提供的粘滞阻尼器组件及单元,最后采用PERFORM-3D对一带粘滞阻尼器支撑的框架结构进行地震动力时程分析,详细讲解PERFORM-3D中粘滞阻尼器单元的基本建模过程及参数定义方法。

[书]PERFORM-3D原理与实例 – 第7章 – 填充墙模拟

在传统的结构分析中,填充墙通常作为非结构构件考虑,在分析过程中,将其以外荷载的形式施加到结构上,并对整体结构的周期进行折减以考虑填充墙对结构刚度的贡献,未直接考虑填充墙对结构非线性行为的影响。相关研究表明[1,2],填充墙对结构的抗震性能有着重要的影响,在结构弹塑性分析中,应合理考虑填充墙的影响。本章首先对砌体填充墙的抗震性能及填充墙的数值模型进行介绍,并着重介绍了基于等效斜压杆的填充墙宏观模型的参数计算方法,最后采用PERFORM-3D[3,4]对一单跨框架填充墙结构的低周往复加载试验进行模拟,讲解PERORM-3D中采用等效斜压杆填充墙模型进行框架填充墙模拟的基本步骤与参数设置方法。In traditional structural analysis, infilled wall is usually considered as non-structural element, and its effect to structure performance was only considered by applying equivalent external load to the main structure and reducing the structure period, the contribution of infilled wall to the structural nonlinear behaviour was not considered directly. Relevant studies have shown that infilled wall has significant influence on both linear and nonlinear structural performance. Therefore, infilled wall should be reasonably considered in structural elasto-plastic analysis. In this chapter, the seismic performance and numerical model of masonry infilled wall was firstly introduced, and the parameters calculation method of the macroscopic infilled wall model based on equivalent diagonal strut theory was explained in detail. After that, a PERFORM-3D simulation of low-cyclic reversed load test of a single span infilled frame structure was conducted by step by step, to explain the fundamental modelling process and parameter definition method of the equivalent diagonal strut infilled wall model.

[书]PERFORM-3D原理与实例 – 第6章 – 剪力墙模拟

剪力墙的非线性分析模型可根据其基本假定的差异及单元自由度数量的多少划分为微观模型和宏观模型[1]。微观模型用实体或者板壳单元直接模拟剪力墙,原理清晰,但计算量大,收敛难以保证,宏观模型将剪力墙用多组非线性弹簧进行模拟,计算量小,试验分析校正相对简单,适用于结构整体弹塑性分析。PERFORM-3D[2,3]中提供了两种剪力墙宏观模型,包括能考虑单向压弯非线性的Shear Wall Element(剪力墙单元)及在此基础上进一步考虑复杂应力状态而开发的General Shear Wall Element(通用剪力墙单元)。其中Shear Wall单元采用的是多竖向弹簧单元模型(MVLEM)理论,为此,本章首先对MVLEM的研究背景及原理进行介绍,在此基础上介绍PERFORM-3D中提供的剪力墙组件及单元,最后采用PERFORM-3D中的Shear Wall单元对一悬臂剪力墙试件的拟静力试验进行模拟,详细讲解Shear Wall单元的基本建模过程和参数定义方法,并对模拟结果进行讨论。According to the difference of basic assumption and the number of degree of freedoms, the nonlinear analysis model of shear wall can be divided into microscopic model and macroscopic model. In microscopic model, shear wall is simulated by solid elements or shell elements. Microscopic model is clear in principle, but always has high calculation cost and the convergence is also difficult to assure. In macroscopic model, shear wall is simulated by multi-nonlinear-springs. When compared with microscopic model, macroscopic model always has lower computational cost and simpler parameters calibration process, which is suitable for elasto-plastic analysis of the whole structure. There are two types of shear wall macroscopic model in PERFORM-3D, including “Shear Wall Element” that can only consider one dimensional nonlinear bending and compression behaviour and “General Shear Wall Element” that can further consider complicated stress state. The Shear Wall Element adopts the theory of multi-vertical-line-element-model (MVLEM), therefore, the research background and the related theory of MVLEM was firstly introduced in this chapter. Then the shear wall components and elements in PERFORM-3D was further explained. After that, a pseudo-static test of cantilever shear wall was simulated by Shear Wall Element in PERFORM-3D. Through this simulation, fundamental modelling process, parameter definition, and interpretation of simulation results of Shear Wall Element were explained in detail.

[书]PERFORM-3D原理与实例 – 第3章 – 钢筋与混凝土材料的单轴本构关系

材料非线性问题是建筑结构非线性分析中经常涉及到的问题,计算中采用的材料本构模型是否合理,直接影响弹塑性分析结果的精度,进而影响建筑结构的抗震性能评估结果。本章首先对几种典型的钢筋与混凝土材料的单轴本构进行介绍,在此基础上对PERFORM-3D [1,2]中单轴本构的处理进行介绍,并结合PERFORM-3D的规则给出常用钢筋与混凝土材料的单轴本构定义方法。Material nonlinearity problems are very common in nonlinear structural analysis. Whether the nonlinear material model used in numerical calculation is reasonable directly influence the reliability of elastoplastic analysis results, which will further affect the seismic performance evaluation of structures. In this chapter, several typical uniaxial constitutive models of steel and concrete was first introduced. On this basis, uniaxial steel and concrete constitutive models in PERFORM-3D were explained in detail. The contents cover detailed explanation of the ‘YULRX’ backbone and the Hysteresis loops in PERFORM-3D. After that, uniaxial constitutive model properties for several commonly used steel and concrete materials were defined based on the rules of PERFORM-3D.

[书]PERFORM-3D原理与实例 – 第2章 – 入门实例:平面钢框架弹性分析

[书]PERFORM-3D原理与实例 – 第二章 – 入门实例:平面钢框架弹性分析.[Book] PERFORM-3D Theory and Tutorials – Chapter 2- Quick Start Example : Elastic Analysis of Plane Steel Frame.上一章对PERFORM-3D软件的设计思路和界面做了简要介绍,本章将通过一个平面钢框架的弹性分析算例,详细介绍PERFORM-3D中常规结构的建模、分析及结果查看的基本操作流程,以便初学者快速入门。The design philosophy and interface of PERFORM-3D were introduced briefly in last chapter. In this chapter we will introduce the details of basic operation of normal structure modelling and analysis results check in PERFORM-3D, through an example of planar steel frames elastic analysis, so that beginners can quickly start.

[书][PERFORM-3D原理与实例 – 前言]

[书][PERFORM-3D原理与实例 – 前言][Book][PERFORM-3D Theory and Tutorials – Foreword ]随着我国经济与技术的快速发展,近年来国内各地陆续出现各种高层、超高层及复杂结构体系,很多建筑超出了现有规范的适用范围,对于这类超限工程结构,采用传统的抗震设计方法已无法确保其安全性,目前工程中主要的做法是采用基于性能的抗震设计方法进行结构设计。基于性能的抗震设计方法与传统抗震设计方法的一个重要的不同之处在于必须通过非线性分析获得结构在罕遇地震作用下的力与变形需求,并依此进行抗震性能评估。为此,工程师必须系统、熟练地掌握一套可靠高效的结构非线性分析软件并能够对软件的非线性分析结果做出合理解读,这样才有可能完成复杂结构的非线性分析与抗震性能评估工作。PERFORM-3D(Nonlinear Analysis and Peformance Assessment for 3D Structures)由美国加州大学伯克利分校的鲍威尔教授(Prof. Granham H. Powell)教授开发,由美国著名的结构分析软件公司CSI(Computers & Structures Inc.)负责发行和维护,是一款致力于三维结构非线性分析和抗震性能评估的软件。PERFORM-3D拥有丰富的单元模型、高效的非线性分析算法及完善的结构性能评估系统,是一款同时适用于科研和工程的结构非线性分析软件,目前已广泛应用于我国结构抗震研究领域及实际工程实践中,是工程界和科研界认可度与接受度均较高的结构非线性分析及抗震性能评估软件。由于PERFORM-3D为英文软件,软件自带的英文帮助文档又涉及较多的力学知识与结构概念,导致初学者很难在短时间里掌握软件的使用方法及理解软件的精髓。目前市面上关于PERFORM-3D的书籍较少,且各有侧重,对于PERFORM-3D软件的学习仍显匮乏。为此,作者决心将自己学习弹塑性分析与PERFORM-3D的心得整理成书,以书会友,希望能帮助到有需要的朋友。众所周知,要想掌握一款结构分析软件,必须对软件的设计思路及涉及的理论知识有较好的把握,而理论知识是十分枯燥的,兴趣是学习理论知识的最好老师,而培养兴趣的最好方法是将理论和实践相结合。为此,本书将PERFORM-3D涉及的常用材料模型、单元模型及分析方法分成多个相互独立的章节进行讲解,每一个章节主要涉及一个独立的主题,如某种材料、单元或者分析方法,并针对该章内容设计一个本章特有的算例进行Step by Step地讲解,且在讲解算例前先对该章用到的理论知识及结构概念进行梳理,将软件的基本原理、基本操作、参数定义方法及使用技巧通过算例讲解有机地结合起来,使读者能够快速把握相关主题的关键点,并通过实例做到举一反三。